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Impaired Waters

What does this mean?

The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify waters that do not or are not expected to meet applicable water quality standards with current pollution control technologies alone.

A lake, river or stream is considered "impaired" if it fails to meet specific water quality standards, according to its intended use. For example:

Within each of these five categories, water managers rely on a variety of data to determine if the water resource has been impaired. To make this determination, they study the creatures living in the water resource (e.g., algae, bacteria, plants and wildlife) along with water chemistry and physical characteristics such as water clarity and/or turbidity.

The administration of the Impaired Waters Rule has been delegated to the State of Florida by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Enforcement of the Rule is performed by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection

A statewide data summary is available in the 303(d) Report which is compiled and updated every three years by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The state's minimum water quality criteria (or standards) are available in Florida's Administrative Code (FAC), Chapter 62-303, as part of the Impaired Waters Rule (IWR). » Read more about the Impaired Waters Rule.

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Watershed Assessment Section is charged with evaluating surface water quality, in order to determine whether a water body is meeting the applicable standards.


How are the data collected? (Methods)

Many types of data are collected in efforts to determine whether or not a water resource is impaired. Some of the information is collected by state agencies, while other data are collected by trained volunteers.

Biological data includes information about algae, bacteria, plants and other wildlife:

Water chemistry data are also obtained from in-situ (i.e., within the water) and lab analyses of surface water samples. This often includes analyses for various forms of nitrogen and/or phosphorus—two essential nutrient groups found in virtually all water bodies.

Physical characteristics such as water clarity and/or turbidity and suspended solids are measured. Good water clarity is necessary for light penetration into the water column, allowing aquatic plants to photosynthesize. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the water is measured; both plants and animals that live in water require oxygen for respiration.

The core function of the Watershed Assessment Section is to use the best available information to identify watebodies and water segments (WBIDs) that are not meeting the applicable water quality standards and designated uses based on the Impaired Waters Rule Chapters 62-303 and 62-302, Florida Administrative Code.


Calculations

See Atlas data.


Caveats and Limitations

It is important to note that even if some of these values exceed state standards, it doesn't necessarily mean a water resource is impaired. Water quality characteristics may vary considerably from one sampling event to the next in response to changes in weather conditions, stream flow, and many other variables. Scientists look for significant changes over a period of time, before they consider the waterbody impaired.

This approach of identifying and prioritizing impaired waters is part of the Clean Water Act of 1977 and also the 1999 Florida Watershed Restoration Act. As a result of these legislative acts, science-based pollution limits, called Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), are being developed to promote the clean-up of each and every impaired waterway. For more information about impaired waters and the standards being used to evaluate them, read:


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